Here are some links to books that were not available at my university library but I was able to access through the use of google books. I found them rather useful, especially the relevant theorists that supported my ideas and research

If you click on the ‘visual essay poster’ title below it will take you to a link that will allow to see it.

An anachronism, from the Greek ανά (ana: up, against, back, re-) and χρόνος (chronos: time), is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from different periods of time. Often the item misplaced in time is an object, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period in time so that it is incorrect to place it outside its proper temporal domain.

Essay research

I also looked at my dissertation from my foundation year, as I had explored similar themes in it, it didn’t really help but there was one paragraph that I thought might be useful;

‘A painting is a testament to the evolution of an idea, using materials that allow it to grow and expand. In the contemporary world, artists such as Jackson Pollock use liquid paint in a fastidious and tenuous way to create their own unique techniques, Pollock for example developed a dripping technique which, like a plant, he then nurtured and grew to a point where he decided to use synthetic resin based paints called alkyd enamels to expressively portray the concepts of his imagination, he described it as ‘A natural growth out of need’ which shows how ideas are almost living things and supports the statement that paintingS are not separate from their creator but rather the physical embodiment of  an artist’s awareness and comprehension of a concept, almost like how an author uses their imagination to put pen to paper’

Essay Research

I also looked at Ben Shahn’s artwork and ‘abstract expressionism’. I want to explore themes of the different roles of the creative practioner, how ideas change with time and how our societal opinions change, influencing artwork. 18/01/2014

there are different links here that connect to key words I typed into google books to help with my research as well as looking at books from bower ashton library

Essay Research:- Provide a detailed critical analysis of a cultural text

I decided to look at ‘Ophelia’ by John Everett Millais and compare it with modern abstract art, using ideas from our lectures on modernism, society and culture and conformity. I can also see elements of feminism that are present in the painting that might be interesting to look at. 18/01/2014

The work was not widely regarded when first exhibited at the Royal Academy, but has since come to be admired for its beauty and its accurate depiction of a natural landscape. Ophelia has been estimated to have a market value of over £30 million.- links to relationship between what the reader and viewer does and the different roles of the creative practioner, how things change /18/01/2014

John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti had established the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848. The Pre-Raphaelite commitment to ‘naturalism’ – “paint[ing] from nature only”,[40] depicting nature in fine detail, had been influenced by Ruskin.

Ruskin came into contact with Millais after the artists approached him through their mutual friend Coventry Patmore.[41] Initially, Ruskin had not been impressed by Millais’s Christ in the House of His Parents (1849–50), a painting that was considered blasphemous at the time, but Ruskin wrote letters defending the PRB to The Times in May 1851.[42] Providing Millais with artistic patronage and encouragement, in the summer of 1853 the artist (and his brother) travelled to Scotland with Ruskin and Effie where, at Glenfinlas, he painted the closely observed landscape background of gneiss rock to which, as had always been intended, he later added Ruskin’s portrait.

Millais had painted Effie for The Order of Release, 1746, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1852. Suffering increasingly from physical illness and acute mental anxiety, Effie was arguing fiercely with her husband and his intense and overly protective parents, and seeking solace with her own parents in Scotland. The Ruskin marriage was already fatally undermined as she and Millais fell in love, and Effie left Ruskin, causing a public scandal.

In April 1854, Effie filed her suit of nullity, on grounds of “non-consummation” owing to his “incurable impotency,”[43][44] a charge Ruskin later disputed.[45] Ruskin wrote, “I can prove my virility at once.”[46] The annulment was granted in July. Ruskin did not even mention it in his diary. Effie married Millais the following year. The complex reasons for the non-consummation and ultimate failure of the Ruskin marriage are a matter of continued speculation and debate.

Ruskin continued to support Hunt and Rossetti. He also provided an annuity of £150 in 1855–57 to Elizabeth Siddal, Rossetti’s wife, to encourage the art (and paid for the services of Henry Acland for her medical care).[47] Other artists influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites also received both critical and financial support from Ruskin, including John Brett, John William Inchbold, and Edward Burne-Jones who became a good friend (he called him “Brother Ned”).[48] His father’s disapproval of such friends was a further cause of considerable tension between them.

During this period Ruskin wrote regular reviews of the annual exhibitions at the Royal Academy under the title Academy Notes (1855–59, 1875).[49] They were highly influential, capable of making and breaking reputations. The satirical magazine, Punch, for example, published the lines (24 May 1856), “I paints and paints,/hears no complaints/And sells before I’m dry,/Till savage Ruskin/He sticks his tusk in/Then nobody will buy.”[50]

Ruskin was an art-philanthropist: in March 1861 he gave 48 Turner drawings to the Ashmolean in Oxford, and a further 25 to the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge in May.[51] Ruskin’s own work was very distinctive, and he occasionally exhibited his watercolours: in the United States in 1857–58 and 1879, for example; and in England, at the Fine Art Society in 1878, and at the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolour (of which he was an honorary member) in 1879. He created many careful studies of natural forms, based on his detailed botanical, geological and architectural observations.[52] Examples of his work include a painted, floral pilaster decoration in the central room of Wallington Hall in Northumberland, home of his friend Pauline Trevelyan. The stained glass window in the Little Church of St Francis Funtley, Fareham, Hampshire is reputed to have been designed by him. Originally placed in the St. Peter’s Church Duntisbourne Abbots near Cirencester, the window depicts the Ascension and the Nativity.[53]

Ruskin’s theories also inspired some architects to adapt the Gothic style. Such buildings created what has been called a distinctive “Ruskinian Gothic”.[54] Through his friendship with Sir Henry Acland, from 1854 Ruskin supported attempts to establish what became the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (designed by Benjamin Woodward) which is the closest thing to a model of this style, but still failed completely to satisfy Ruskin. The many twists and turns in the Museum’s development, not least its increasing cost, and the University authorities’ less than enthusiastic attitude towards it, proved increasingly frustrating for Ruskin

‘Intended by Ruskin that every detail should have its own identity, a statement of god’s manifest creation in all its diversity and wonder’

I thought I would start my primary research by looking at websites about the Pre-raphaelites and the values they held and what contributed to their ideas when painting

Compare Two Areas that display Artwork

The Bear Pit and Soma Art Gallery

Both The Bear Pit and The Soma were recorded observationally. I found that the artwork in the bear pit was more bold and expressive in a style that was only vaguely similar to the Soma, as the bear pit focused on street art which you could see tried to communicate directly to passers by through the use of brash colours and thick bold outlines, whereas Soma was more targeted to a specific type of audience; it had a more homey feel that seemed less rugged and more warm, shouting ‘Buy me and I’ll look good above your fireplace’ as opposed to ‘Here is my statement against the world and society’. Having said that, when looking at the artwork from both places you still get a sense of clarification of the artist’s ideas and concepts; you can feel the emotions and sensations that went into the
application process to produce a design that evokes a tangibility and distinction of mood. Even the use of colour is similar, seeming bright and attractive to grab the viewer’s attention, though the location definitely limits who sees it as The Soma is in Clifton which is a more rural and affluent area than The Bear Pit, which, arguably, is less sophisticated and more on an everyday level when compared to the gothic Victorian architecture in Clifton. One big difference between The Soma and The Bear Pit is that in The Soma, all the artwork has a price, the artwork evokes a sense of consideration that suggests a more though out process went into creating the paintings, whereas in the Bear Pit, in some cases people have added to the work, perhaps because the artists wanted others to get involved and create their own statements and not think about how much the painting could be worth, suggesting that The Soma is targeted at people who are more well off and have expensive taste whereas The Bear Pit is targeted at people who want to be inspired and expressively portray their own ideas. On the other hand, people with more expensive taste may still be attracted to the work found in The Bear Pit but from my observations, I found that many people use it primarily as a way through the traffic that surrounds the area, the individuals of which whom were dressed more importantly, carried a sense of complete disregard to the artwork around them. Both places appeal to their targeted audiences, as they both use colour and composition to influence the essence of the artwork displayed and how it can be interpreted by others, therefore determining the use of context and location which further confines who can see or, questionably, who wants to see the artwork available for visual and bill consumption.